PEACETOPIAN MILESTONES

A holistic movement for a better world
has been evolving throughout history...

 

1648 -
Peace of Westphalia

War has been a problem that has plagued humanity throughout the ages. History is filled with accounts of disputes, conflicts and bloody battles within and between nations, some raging for thirty, fifty and even 100 years. Throughout history, nations have often spent much of their resources waging wars or arming themselves in preparation for defense against other larger or more powerful nations. Small heavily-armed countries have become empires, conquering other countries and overthrowing other empires. One important concept that arose to address the constant fear of having to be vigilantly prepared for war, was for the states in a region, or even globally, to form alliances and agreements that would provide 'collective security.' In this arrangement, the states agree that the security of each state is the concern of all -- if any of the individual states is threatened, they will all respond together to defend the peace. Smaller alliances were common throughout history, but in 1629, French Catholic Cardinal Richelieu proposed a plan for collective security on a much larger scale. His proposal was partially realized in 1648 with the Peace of Westphalia, a series of peace treaties that ended several major ongoing wars, including the Thirty Years' War in the Holy Roman Empire and the Eighty Years' War between the Dutch Republic and Spain. It created an ongoing agreement for the collective security of 140 different states and dozens of other interest groups.

Although the Peace of Westphalia did not succeed in forever eliminating wars in Europe, it significantly altered the pervading paradigm, by affirming individual states' rights to 'sovereignty' or independent authority within their country, instead of having to follow the mandates of an empire that ruled over them. The regulations set out in these treaties, created an early model for the extensive international treaties and international laws which would follow.


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MILESTONES

c.380 BC
"Republic"

1215
Magna Carta

1516
"Utopia"

1528
"On Civil Power"

1625
"On The Law
of War and Peace"

1648
Peace of Westphalia

1650-1799
Enlightenment

1689
"Two Treatises of Government"

1762
"Social Contract"

July 4, 1776
US Declaration of Independence

September 17, 1787
US Constitution

August 26, 1789
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

September 25, 1789
US Bill of Rights

1793
Department of Peace

1795
"Perpetual Peace"

May 18, 1899
Hague Peace Conference

1901
Nobel Peace Prize

January 8, 1918
14 Points

June 28, 1919
League of Nations

1933
The New Deal

January 6, 1941
The Four Freedoms

October 24, 1945
The United Nations

August, 1947
World Federalist Movement

December 10, 1948
Universal Declaration of Human Rights

1955
"Let There Be
Peace On Earth"

1956
The Beloved Community

1960-1963
The New Frontier

1963-1969
The Great Society

1970
Earth Day

October 11, 1971
"Imagine"

1981
International Day of Peace

1985
77 Theses on the Care of the Earth

1988
Global Cooperation for a Better World

1991
Earth Constitution

1992
UNESCO
Culture of Peace Programme

1992
"4000 Ideas & Dreams for a Better World"

1995
Earth Magna Charta

1995
"When Corporations Rule The World"

1996
"Peace On Earth Millennium"

1997
Appeal of the Nobel Laureates

1998
"Conscious Evolution"

May 11-15, 1999
Hague Appeal for Peace

January 1, 2000
One Day In Peace

June 29, 2000
The Earth Charter

September, 2000
Millennium Development Goals

January 25-30, 2001
World Social Forum

October, 2001
"Better World Handbook"

2005
Clinton Global Initiative

July 18, 2007
The Elders

September 17, 2011
Occupy Wall Street