PEACETOPIAN MILESTONES

A holistic movement for a better world
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1906-1914
"Satyagraha"


Mohandas Gandhi is an iconic figure revered for profoundly proving that nonviolent action is a powerful force for change. While working as a lawyer in South Africa, Gandhi became politically involved in defending the rights of the oppressed Indian minority population living and working there. Starting in 1906 and 1907, new discriminatory legislation called the Black Act required all Indians to be fingerprinted and to carry registration documents at all times or face imprisonment or deportation. Gandhi and others refused to register and instead organized massive protests and strikes. This was the first time Gandhi used nonviolent non-cooperation as a tool to bring about change. Influenced by the idea of 'natural rights' described by the writers of the Enlightenment, Henry David Thoreau's ideas of 'civil disobedience' and the idea of 'passive resistance' urged by others before him, Gandhi coined the term 'satyagraha' to describe the type of nonviolent resistance he developed. Loosely translated from the Sanskrit as 'insistence on truth', 'truth force' or 'soul force', Gandhi's philosophy was based on the idea that when people are being exploited they can look past the current situation to see the universal truth of their natural right to be free, and nonviolently refuse to follow an unjust manmade law. Over the next seven years he developed his concept of satyagraha; many protesters, including Gandhi, were beaten and arrested, but ultimately the Black Act was repealed, proving the success of nonviolent protest. Using the practice of satyagraha he developed in South Africa, Gandhi helped India gain its independence from British rule. Gandhi's actions and teachings greatly influenced many other nonviolent struggles for a better world, including Martin Luther King, Jr.'s campaigns for civil rights, Nelson Mandela's struggle under apartheid in South Africa, and Cesar Chavez's advocacy for worker's rights.


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MILESTONES

c.380 BC
"Republic"

1215
Magna Carta

1516
"Utopia"

1528
"On Civil Power"

1625
"On The Law
of War and Peace"

1648
Peace of Westphalia

1650-1799
Enlightenment

1689
"Two Treatises of Government"

1762
"Social Contract"

July 4, 1776
US Declaration of Independence

September 17, 1787
US Constitution

August 26, 1789
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

September 25, 1789
US Bill of Rights

1793
Department of Peace

1795
"Perpetual Peace"

May 18, 1899
Hague Peace Conference

1901
Nobel Peace Prize

January 8, 1918
14 Points

June 28, 1919
League of Nations

1933
The New Deal

January 6, 1941
The Four Freedoms

October 24, 1945
The United Nations

August, 1947
World Federalist Movement

December 10, 1948
Universal Declaration of Human Rights

1955
"Let There Be
Peace On Earth"

1956
The Beloved Community

1960-1963
The New Frontier

1963-1969
The Great Society

1970
Earth Day

October 11, 1971
"Imagine"

1981
International Day of Peace

1985
77 Theses on the Care of the Earth

1988
Global Cooperation for a Better World

1991
Earth Constitution

1992
UNESCO
Culture of Peace Programme

1992
"4000 Ideas & Dreams for a Better World"

1995
Earth Magna Charta

1995
"When Corporations Rule The World"

1996
"Peace On Earth Millennium"

1997
Appeal of the Nobel Laureates

1998
"Conscious Evolution"

May 11-15, 1999
Hague Appeal for Peace

January 1, 2000
One Day In Peace

June 29, 2000
The Earth Charter

September, 2000
Millennium Development Goals

January 25-30, 2001
World Social Forum

October, 2001
"Better World Handbook"

2005
Clinton Global Initiative

July 18, 2007
The Elders

September 17, 2011
Occupy Wall Street